Seoul

“With the beginning of the occupation… the Japanese instituted their own reforms to bring their vision of modernity in Korea to serve the expansion of their Empire and use Korea as a backup of resources. The main change was that instead of serving the Korean power, these improvements and spatial reorganization served the Japanese emperor and treated the Korean populations as his subjects and not as citizens anymore. These transformations mostly occurred between 1910 and 1925 and permitted political and sociological changes. Indeed all the urban transformations has been done in order to desacralize the Korean royal power and bring closer Korean and Japanese populations to finally assimilate the Korean culture.”

– Juliette Valat, “How the Japanese Occupation Shaped the City of Seoul,” 2014

Narratives


1988 Olympic / 1976-1986 / Reclaiming Han River, the beginning of villages and catalyst of change

Lam Yu Yin

The Yeongdong area was low, causing frequent flooding of the Han River. After being submerged in water, the water repeatedly drained, creating a new wide white sand every year. To solve the rapidly growing population problem in Seoul, Gangnam development was inevitable and the “dimension” issue was urgently needed for this. The first Han River ...

1988 Olympic / 1976-1986 / Jamsil Olympic Park, restoration and reinterpretation of cultures

Lam Yu Yin

In 1981, the National Sports Arena was planned together with the Olympic Village to provide a convenient competition venue for the athletes. In 1984, the National Sports Arena was renamed as Olympic Park since the park was not only providing competition venue but also shopping malls, restaurants and gyms, etc for a better living environment ...

1988 Olympic / 1976-1986 / Jamsil Seokchon Lake Park, new concept of all-in-one neighbourhood

Lam Yu Yin

The basic plan for the comprehensive development of Jamsil District in 1974 was very different from the comprehensive development plan of Jamsil District in 1970. In 1970, when the plan for Jamsil Island was first established, the creation of Jamsil Sports Complex was included, but at that time, the Jamsil district was intended to be ...

Pre-88 Olympic / 1976-1986 / Part V: Land Readjustment Program – the Win-win Solution for the Government and the Landowners

Tsang Nok Yi

It was unavoidable to take over the rights of properties from the original owners of the targeted land and readjust the shape of land parcels when the government was going to build the roads and bridges and develop the southern area of the river. The legal term “Land Readjustment” firstly appeared in the Urban Planning ...

Pre-88 Olympic / 1976-1986 / Part IV: Bridges and Expressways – ‘The world to Seoul, Seoul into the World’

Tsang Nok Yi

Bridges are built for overcoming the geographical constraints of the transportation of people and goods. Cities grow and expand throughout time and bridges are indivisible from the process of city formation and affecting its potential growth and outcomes. However, bridges should not be only defined with the engineering meaning as “a structure spanning and providing ...

Pre-88 Olympic / 1976-1986 / Part III: North-south Migration and the Changing Cityscape

Tsang Nok Yi

Jamsil, the former small island was transformed into a part of the urban region through massive reclamation since 1971. As the government tried to balance the level of urban development between two sides of the Han River and Jamsil was a relatively undeveloped area with lots of potentials, the government chose to build the Olympic ...

Pre-88 Olympic / 1976-1986 / Part II: Realizing the Rosario Metropolis by the Construction of Subway Line 2

Tsang Nok Yi

The Rosario Plan for Seoul, proposed by Byong-Kee Kahng in 1980, is characterized by a decentralized urban spatial structure that integrates mass-transit, land use planning, and district level design to realize transit-oriented development (TOD) . It suggests the city to be multi-centralized, with residential, commercial, and recreational space located around the subway stations. Kahng’s Rosario Plan ...

1988 Olympic / 1976-1986 / Jamsil Sports Complex, erasion of the past for the future

Lam Yu Yin

South Korea has hosted the Olympic Games in 1988 and the national government has used redevelopment for the Games to erase its past, mediate tensions in the present, and materialise a new future. The Olympic Games Seoul 1988 contributed to the transformation of Korea’s image, both internally and externally, from a poor, war-stricken and divided ...

1988 Olympic / 1976-1986 / Modernisation, changes of park and green space in the hand of political leaders

Lam Yu Yin

There had been places that served as parks and green spaces since the Kingdom of Joseon. However, people were not particularly interested in creating a park in a separate location, they simply visited and admired the beauty of natural scenery, as the walled city in Seoul was located to the north of the Han River, ...

Pre-88 Olympic / 1976-1986 / Part I: Road Network and the Transportation Challenges Unsolved

Tsang Nok Yi

In 1981, Seoul was chosen to host the 1988 Olympics. However, some people expressed concerns about whether the country could hold the event successfully. Back in 1981, the transport infrastructure of Seoul was not capable to hold such a big event and Seoul was notorious for extreme traffic congestion at the time. There was only ...

Jamsil, Subway Line 2, and City “Subcenters” (Pre-88Olympic / 1976-1986)

Lee Hae Jin

(Estimated reading time: 4 minutes) The public was beginning to feel the harbingers of economic globalization when the government announced 4 nuclei 18 Living Area/Living Zone System (4핵18생활권 체계) in preparation for 88 Olympic (see Living Area system map).  This narrative tackles the intentions behind the government’s “subcenter” labeling and how the subway infrastructure fits the ...

Jamsil District Apartment and Middle-Class Dream (Pre-88 Olympic / 1976-1986)

Lee Hae Jin

(Estimated reading time: 4 minutes) Jamsil apartment boom from 1976 to 1986 arguably was only possible by the 3-lows: low oil price, low interest rates, and low exchange rates from the stagflation during the 1979 Second Oil Crisis. Jamsil apartments and the middle-class dream of South Koreans coincided with the oil shock, where oil market reactions ...

“Overlap” of Public Opinion, Media and Government in shaping Jamsil housing (Pre-88Olympic / 1976-1986)

Lee Hae Jin

(Estimated reading time: 4-5 minutes) The narrative looks at how 1. Mass media deviating from social issues caused by greed and excessive developments, 2. South Korean mass media set “standards” for what housing ought to be, 3. Mass media as failed fourth estate, and their overlap in shaping Jamsil’s housing. South Korean officialdom view the 1974 Jamsil ...

Agencies and Agendas in the construction of Jamsil District during Seoul 88 Olympic Fever (Pre-88 Olympic / 1976-1986)

Lee Hae Jin

(Estimated reading time: 5 minutes) Jamsil district and at large Seoul’s Olympic urban planning is arguably a salad bowl mix without dressing, of inspirations and ideas from modernism in Europe, the United States, and Japan. The collaboration of agencies in the discipline to localize Western planning principles in accordance with Korean postcolonial settings. The agencies, however, ...

Post-Korean-War Architect’s lineage, CIAM, and Neighborhood Unit Theory: Jamsil District Planning and Influences from the West (Pre-88 Olympic / 1976-1986)

Lee Hae Jin

(Estimated reading time: 9 minutes) 1976-1986 is a convoluted period of contentions and confusions for South Korean architects and planners – their emulation of foreign precedents and references to foreign theories induced pensive thoughts and dilemmas. Nationalism, patriotism, and military dictatorships – none of which at the time would allow the architects to be opinionated. Designs ...

Historical Documents


Pre-88 Olympic / 1976-1986 / Seoul’s Land Readjustment Projects

Tsang Nok Yi

Pre-88 Olympic / 1976-1986 / Expansion of Seoul’s Transport Network for the Olympics

Tsang Nok Yi

Pre-88 Olympic / 1976-1986 / The Opening and Evolution of Jamsil Bridge

Tsang Nok Yi

Pre-88 Olympic / 1976-1986 / Development of the Jamsil District

Tsang Nok Yi

Pre-88 Olympic / 1976-1986 / Planning of the Station-surrounding Areas

Tsang Nok Yi

1988 Olympic / 1976-1986/ Change of Jamsil planning

Lam Yu Yin

1988 Olympic / 1976-1986 / Solution of flooding of an isolated island

Lam Yu Yin

1988 Olympic / 1976-1986 / Blueprint of ideal neighbourhood

Lam Yu Yin

1988 Olympic / 1976-1986 / Construction of the nation icon, Jamsil Sports Complex

Lam Yu Yin

1988 Olympic / 1976-1986 / Integration of sport complex and heritage park

Lam Yu Yin

Jamsil development in Media – maps and diagrams in Kyunghyang Shinmun (Pre-88Olympic / 1976-1986)

Lee Hae Jin

Fidel Castro’s 88 Olympic Withdrawal Letter to International Olympic Committee (Pre-88Olympic / 1976-1986)

Lee Hae Jin

Jamsil District Comprehensive Development Plan (Pre-88Olympic / 1976-1986)

Lee Hae Jin

Park Byung-Joo’s New Seoul Plan and Neighborhood Unit Theory (Pre-88Olympic / 1976-1986)

Lee Hae Jin

Han River Comprehensive Development Basic Plan Report (Pre-88 Olympic / 1976-1986)

Lee Hae Jin

Seoul: Yeouido develeopment process in 1960s.

Seo Inhoo

Seoul: Financial Sector Yeouido, the topography movement in 1980s

Seo Inhoo

Seoul: History of Yeouido Sewoon Sangga built by architect Kim Soo Guen

Seo Inhoo

Seoul: Architect Kim Soo Guen’s Yeouido Urban Master Plan Analysis

Seo Inhoo

Seoul: History of the National Assembly Capitol in Yeouido/ how the capitol’s dome structure designed by architect Ahn Young Bae

Seo Inhoo

Seoul: Yeouido Project/The Model of Yeouido Development project

Wang Tianduo

Seoul: Yeouido Project/Yeouido Residential Land Sale Bidding Announcement

Wang Tianduo

Seoul: Yeouido Project/Yeouido Comprehensive Development Plan Model

Wang Tianduo

Seoul: Yeouido Project/A cross section of Yeouido development zone

Wang Tianduo

Seoul: Yeouido Project/Traffic Plan and Land Use Plan for the Yeouido and Han River Areas Development Plan

Wang Tianduo

Seoul’s Historical War Map 1946

Ip Pui Yue Iris

Yeouido: the construction of the Yeouido Park

Ip Pui Yue Iris

Yeouido: Apartments buildings in 1970s

Ip Pui Yue Iris

Yeouido: The Opening of the National Assembly Building 1971

Ip Pui Yue Iris

The Yeouido Plan, 1968

Ip Pui Yue Iris

 

Bibliography


1988 Olympic / 1976-1986 / Urban Redevelopment Act on Jamsil

Lam Yu Yin

1988 Olympic / 1976-1986 / Modernisation, changes of democratisation under 1988 Olympic

Lam Yu Yin

1988 Olympic / 1976-1986 / How Olympic Redevelopment Erased South Korea’s Past

Lam Yu Yin

1988 Olympic / 1976-1986 / Excavation of Mongchontoseong Fortress

Lam Yu Yin

1988 Olympic / 1976-1986 / Achievements of Olympic

Lam Yu Yin

Pre-88 Olympic / 1976-1986 / Developing Transport Infrastructure in Seoul

Tsang Nok Yi

Pre-88 Olympic / 1976-1986 / Experiences in Seoul Subway Development

Tsang Nok Yi

Pre-88 Olympic / 1976-1986 / Plans of the Olympic Facilities and the Road Network

Tsang Nok Yi

Pre-88 Olympic / 1976-1986 / From Linear City to Rosario Metropolis

Tsang Nok Yi

Pre-88 Olympic / 1976-1986 / Momentum of Changes in Seoul for the Games

Tsang Nok Yi

KBS revisiting pre-88Olympic footages – mass media’s portrayal of Jamsil neighborhood and Seoul development preparing for summer Olympic (Pre-88Olympic / 1976-1986)

Lee Hae Jin

Give Back Our Dong Jun – Social unrests on excessive forces, injustice, and death from city-wide “cleaning” (Pre-88Olympic / 1976-1986)

Lee Hae Jin

Apartment from Peter Winston Ferretto’s Place/Seoul

Lee Hae Jin

Jamsil Planning – Jung Inha’s Architecture and Urbanism in Modern Korea

Lee Hae Jin

Crows’ Eye View – Pai Hyungmin and Cho Minsuk’s curatorial in 2016 Venice Biennale Korean Pavilion

Lee Hae Jin

Seoul: Yeouido’s new landmark Parc One in 2020

Seo Inhoo

Seoul: Yeouido’s new ‘Green Traffic Regualtion’/ Potential of Ssing Ssing

Seo Inhoo

Seoul: A Death in Yeouido in the middle of construction/ a man fell down into collapsed sinkhole on pedestrian walk

Seo Inhoo

Seoul: Korea’s the very first airport/ Yeouido Airfield in 1920

Seo Inhoo

Seoul: Yeouido traffic jam from assembly march

Seo Inhoo

Seoul: Yeouido Project/The Artificial Land manifested in Kim Swoo Geun’s Urban Architecture in Late 1960s.

Wang Tianduo

Seoul: Yeouido Project/Urban Finance in Seoul

Wang Tianduo

Seoul: Yeouido Project/Seoul: The Making of a Metropolis

Wang Tianduo

Seoul: Yeouido Project/Modernism, Development, and the Transformation of Seoul: A Study of the Development of Sae’oon Sang’ga and Yoido

Wang Tianduo

Seoul: Yeouido Project/Constructing a ‘miracle,’ Architecture, National Identity and Development of Han River

Wang Tianduo

The National Archives Records: Autonomy and Taboo

Ip Pui Yue Iris

Korea and their cities mapped: the CIA and the US Army

Ip Pui Yue Iris

The Seoul Institute and the Seoul Metropolitan Archives: self-study and self-love

Ip Pui Yue Iris

Publications from the Seoul Metropolitan Government: Transportation, Railway and e-Government and policy-making

Ip Pui Yue Iris

Seoul and South Korea on the global stage

Ip Pui Yue Iris

 

Abu Dhabi Amman | Ankara | Bangkok | Beijing | Chengdu | Chongqing | Datong | Delhi | Dhaka | Dubai | Hiroshima | Ho Chi Minh City | Hong Kong | Istanbul | Jakarta | Jerusalem | Jingdezhen | Kuala Lumpur | KolkataKyoto | Macau | Mumbai | Phnom Penh | Seoul | Shanghai | Shenzhen | Singapore | Taipei | Tashkent | Tehran | Tel Aviv | Tianjin | Tokyo | Ulaanbaatar | Xi’anYangon | Yerevan |