Singapore

“The first ten years of the Housing and Development Board (HDB) were to prove pivotal to Singapore’s history. Housing was used as a conditioning tool, one could say… Housing does not only serve to shelter people but is a physical reminder of how much Singapore had achieved. The tangibility of buildings make for a strong presence in the memory of the people. Furthermore, … the resettlement of those whose land was acquired provided another opportunity for the authorities to control the population… The creation of open spaces in the Garden City ideal further promoted community cohesion… This was especially important for a multi-ethnic society like Singapore, with three different races and four different languages being spoken. Public housing thus proved to be an ideal tool to integrate what easily could have become a racially-polarized state.”

– Nafeesa Hamza, “Breaking the Back of the Housing Problem,” 2014

Narratives


OCBC Building- Architectural merits as statement

Wang Yi Xiao Annie

                          The Construction of the OCBC headquarter, as required by Mr. Tan, was designed to be a symbol of strength and permanence, a “national monument”. The 3-tire system adopted by IM Pei consisting of two semi-circular reinforced concrete cores supporting 3 tremendous transverse girders was an innovative technology, allowing the construction to complete in 2 ...

OCBC Building- Starchitect effect

Wang Yi Xiao Annie

  Though Mr. Tan, the chairman of OCBC back then, appointed IM Pei, the world- renowned architect to head the design team of OCBC headquarter partly because IM Pei was his family friends, the phenomenon that it was one of the first buildings in Singapore to involve foreign architects and since then more collaborations with foreign ...

OCBC Building- Transformation of architectural style

Wang Yi Xiao Annie

  source:From the Kouo Shang-Wei Collection 郭尚慰珍藏. All rights reserved, Family of Kouo Shang-Wei and National Library Board Singapore 2007 source:From the Kouo Shang-Wei Collection 郭尚慰珍藏. All rights reserved, Family of Kouo Shang-Wei and National Library Board Singapore 2007 The Oversea-Chinese Banking Corporation was the largest private bank in Singapore, from the the 1964 photograph of ...

Golden Shoe Redevelopment- Government’s role in redevelopment mechanism

Wang Yi Xiao Annie

The economic success of the Golden Shoe as a pilot projects can be accredited to its mechanism to a considerable extent. The Government developed an interactive mechanism that required the joint effort of State Power and public sector after balancing between letting its masterplan take full control and serving only as a passive welfare role.  ...

Golden Shoe Redevelopment- Land value, land ownership and urban development

Wang Yi Xiao Annie

Without government’s intervention, land prices are primarily determined by supply-demand relationship. After WWII, to protect tenants from unreasonable rent increase arising from housing shortage, the colonial government enacted Rent Control legislation in 1947, which prohibited rent on any premises covered by the act to increase beyond its 1939 level, repossession of such premises is also ...

Drawing – Architecture as a Brand for Economic Development

Emerald Lui

How government boosted economic growth in terms of architectures in golden shoe development? This article mainly focuses on the Golden Shoe Redevelopment project with the background of DBS Building and OCBC Building to find out architecture’s influence on city image.   (fig 1. Singapore Planning Department’s envision on Golden Shoe Redevelopment; Source: Singapore Planning Department, Annual Report 1964, Singapore Government, ...

Interview with the Architect – Influence of City Image by the Background of Architect

Emerald Lui

How does the background of architect help build up a city’s identity? This article mainly focuses on “Singapore Conference Hall and Trade Union House‘‘ to look into the background of architects in relation to architectural design. (fig 2. A local architect’s opinion towards competition entry; Source: “Lim Chong Keat Interview”, In Search of Southeast Asia through the M+ Collections ...

Conference Hall – Singapore Architecture Celebrated Modernism and Regionalism

Emerald Lui

Is the regional characteristic outshined by modernism in new buildings? This article mainly focuses on “Singapore Conference Hall and Trade Union House‘‘ to raise questions toward Singapore’s architectural style – modernism and regionalism. (fig 1. Front View of Conference Hall; Source: Powell, Robert, and Patrick. Bingham-Hall. Singapore Architecture. Singapore: Periplus Editions (HK), 2004.) (fig 2. Plans of Conference Hall; ...

National Competition Entry – Singapore’s Government Shaped its Identity

Emerald Lui

How government shaped its identity in terms of architectures in Golden Shoe Development Project? This article mainly focuses on the Government’s attitude towards “Singapore Conference Hall and Trade Union House‘‘ competition entry.  (fig 1. Newspaper Clipping about how Conference Hall’s design proposal was approved by Government) “It is a building of which Singapore can be pround.” – Mr. K. ...

Politics — Active Executive Power and Economic Precedence Eased Singaporean’s Stress

Emerald Lui

How Singapore government changes the passive condition on the political agenda? Singapore faces a lot of difficulties during its independent governing (mentioned below). It first needed to stabilize social tensions during that era while securing its strength and resources for future development. Most importantly, it needed to bypass the old political agendas by providing a new ...

Golden Shoe Redevelopment – A Solid Approach to Uproot Urban Decay

Haydon Chan

Singapore experienced an unstable political condition during the 1960s, while Singapore ended the status as a British colony in 1963 and separated from Malaysia as a newly independent state in 1965. The drastic change made the leading role of Singapore – People’s Action Party and Lee Kuan Yew – became critical to sort out the ...

Singapore DBS Building – A New Landmark on Shenton Way

Haydon Chan

The Development Bank of Singapore (DBS) from 1969-1975 by the Architects Team 3 was one of the earliest redevelopment projects that completed in the Golden Shoe area. The tower then became a new landmark along the Shenton Way, a major road in the core of Singapore. From the historic photo as shown above, the Central Area ...

Singapore / An Evaluation of the Redevelopment of Boat Quay – Conservation for Locals and a Destination for Consumption

Yang Tsun-Hsien

The redevelopment of Boat Quay has two urban aspects. One is the conservation concerns aroused with the historical identities issue among Singaporean local during the rapid development after the country’s independence. The other is the economy-driven character that Singapore was born with under the insecure of limitations of land and the ambitious neighbours. The former ...

Singapore / Urban Entrepreneurism and Stakeholders in the Redevelopment of Boat Quay

Yang Tsun-Hsien

The government of Singapore has always been seen as a prototype as an entrepreneurial government. Not only has the government been a dominant leading character in urban development, but it works and makes decisions like a profit-making enterprise. The government of Singapore acts as a company that is owned by all its citizens; the profit ...

Singapore / Pragmatism, Urban Planning and Conservation

Yang Tsun-Hsien

“ recent architecture only reflects the dominance of the business community and its material wealth.” Stated by William Lim, the main architect behind the Bu Ye Tian project, in his book ...

Historical Documents


the OCBC Building- Technology

Wang Yi Xiao Annie

Rent Control Act, Land Acquisition Act, Control Premises Act

Wang Yi Xiao Annie

Golden Shoe Redevelopment- Official Impression

Wang Yi Xiao Annie

OCBC Building- Architectural merits as statement

Wang Yi Xiao Annie

OCBC Building- Starchitect effect

Wang Yi Xiao Annie

OCBC Building- Transformation of architectural style

Wang Yi Xiao Annie

Drawing – Architecture as a Brand for Economic Development

Emerald Lui

Historical Photos – from ‘Third World’ City of Slums to ‘Global City of Skyscrapers’

Emerald Lui

National Competition Entry – Singapore’s Government Shaped its Identity

Emerald Lui

Newspaper — Revealing Social Anxiety when Singapore announced its Independence

Emerald Lui

Golden Shoe and Infrastructure – An Interdependent Component to its Success

Haydon Chan

Development Policies, 1970

Haydon Chan

Golden Shoe Redevelopment – A Solid Approach to Uproot Urban Decay

Haydon Chan

Singapore DBS Building – New Era of Singaporean Economy

Haydon Chan

Singapore DBS Building – A Test of Building Forms in Golden Shoe area

Haydon Chan

First Town map/ Concept Plan 1971/1991

YuiWa Wong

Lee Kuan Yew documentory/ Policy for Singapore

YuiWa Wong

Survey on national identity

SuetYing Chan

Timeline of Reclamation

YuiWa Wong

Evolving Singaporean National Identity

SuetYing Chan

National Service and Nation Building in Singapore

ManSi Fan

Building Singapore’s national identity through Books

ManSi Fan

Marina Bay realised

ManSi Fan

Displeasure at Singapore’s land reclamation from Malaysia

ManSi Fan

History of Singapore’s land reclamation

ManSi Fan

Singapore / Historical Documents: Plan of Housing Estates and Photos of Kampung

Cyrus C.H. Wong

Singapore / Historical Documents: Plan of Old and New Ethnic Enclaves

Cyrus C.H. Wong

Singapore / Historical Documents: HDB Precincts & Block Design

Lorraine Y.T. Li

Singapore / Historical Documents: Plan of SIT’s Tiong Bahru

Lorraine Y.T. Li

 

Bibliography


Book – Singapore: A Developmental City State

Emerald Lui

Book – The Politics of Urban Development in Singapore

Emerald Lui

Book – Urban Planning in Singapore : The Transformation of a City

Emerald Lui

Book – Contemporary Singapore Architecture

Emerald Lui

Research Thesis – Singapore Identity and Architecture

Emerald Lui

Singapore: The Politics of inventing National Identity

Wang Yi Xiao Annie

Regulating design in Singapore: a survey of the Government Land Sales (GLS) programme

Wang Yi Xiao Annie

The Heart of a Global City: The Remaking of singapore’s City centre

Wang Yi Xiao Annie

Singapore’s moment: critical regionalism, its colonial roots and profound aftermath

Haydon Chan

Case Study 3 – Singapore Cultural identity in Architecture as Perceived from a Singapore Viewpoint

Haydon Chan

A Pictorial Chronology of the Sale of Sites Programme for Private Development: 1967-1974 Urban Renewal Department, 1974 Urban Redevelopment Authority

Haydon Chan

Four decades of transformation: land use in Singapore, 1960-2000

YuiWa Wong

Urban planning in Singapore : the transformation of a city

YuiWa Wong

Singapore and National Identity [Book Reference]

SuetYing Chan

National Service and Nation Building in Singapore

ManSi Fan

Singapore in the Malay World: Building and Breaching Regional Bridges

ManSi Fan

Singapore in Global History

ManSi Fan

Reframing Singapore memory, identity, trans-regionalism

ManSi Fan

Singapore / Bibliography – Master Plan for Singapore 1958 (SIT)

Lorraine Y.T. Li

Singapore / Bibliography – The Politics of Landscape in Singapore: Constructions of “nation”

Cyrus C.H. Wong

Singapore / Bibliography – Spatial Planning for a Sustainable Singapore

Cyrus C.H. Wong

Singapore / Bibliography – Nationalism and Globalization: East and West

Cyrus C.H. Wong

Singapore / Bibliography – Nation Politics of Public Housing Policy in Singapore

Cyrus C.H. Wong

Singapore / Bibliography – Towards a Spatial History of Emergency: Notes from Singapore

Lorraine Y.T. Li

 

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