Tokyo

“Post-war Japan since the 1920s was in need of development of a strong industrial trading sector for national economic survival. The Japanese government passed policies that encouraged the industry along coastal line, resulting in extensive landfills in tidal bays including those in Tokyo, the capitol… However, there was a major problem in the Japanese zoning system, which only consisted of four zones: residential, commercial, industrial and quasi-industrial. There were little standard in housing and land development, let alone subdivision control. That caused Tokyo to become a chaotic mosaic of high-density residential and commercial areas next to industrial plants with few green areas… These negative effects to the city brought by rapid urban growth and limited planning effort by the government led to the rise of avant-garde architects with visions of finding a new solution that could cope with modern society. This also led to the subsequent rise of Metabolist architects.”

– Caroline Fok, “Transformation in the 1960s,” 2014

Narratives


Tokyo Decentralization V: Decentralization as a Catchphrase

Leung Janice

As evidenced by the growing population and employment densities in the suburban rings of the Tokyo Metropolitan Area, indicating patterns of polycentric development occurring (Sorensen, 2001), there are questions emerging on whether the apparent phenomenon is directly resulted from the planning policies advocated by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government (TMG). Indeed, some studies discover the lack ...

High and Low of Tokyo – Yamanote and Shitamachi

Mak Yuen Ching

5/ Regional Culture of Tokyo  The development of Tokyo maintains its territorial regional characteristics throughout history. Tokyo can be identified as two regions, the Yamanote Region and the Shitamachi Region. Both district has their unique characters and together they forms a Tokyo containing both elements of an economic center and a historic capital.   I. Natural Limitation Tokyo can ...

Tokyo Decentralization I: Shinjuku Emerging as New Center

Leung Janice

The new-found centrality of Shinjuku is a grand strategy to decentralization in Tokyo as proposed in the second long term plan, to refabricate the city into what planners call a ‘multi-nodal metropolis’ (see Decentralization Process of TMG and the 2nd Long-Term Plan). The main idea is to alleviate congestion problems in the existing CBD in ...

Tokyo Decentralization IV: Conflicts on Dispersal of Functions

Leung Janice

To remediate the overconcentration of the urban center of Tokyo which was expanding from Marunouchi to the whole Yamanote Loop Line area, discussions about dispersion of capital and office functions into suburban centers arise, and the concept of Business Core Cities (BCCs) is emerged in the Fourth National Capital Region Development Plan (NCRDP) in 1986, ...

Hometown But Not Bedtown – Housing in the 2nd and 3rd Long-Term Plan

Yin Yue

Tokyo Metropolitan Government has budged ¥7.37 trillion for the new 3rd long-term plan in 1991. The major purposes of the new plan are for the coming 21st century as well as the “My Town Tokyo” concept. Governor Suzuki stressed that it is essential and urgent to create Tokyo as a better living city. Therefore in ...

Surpassing the Precedent – JR East

Mak Yuen Ching

4/ JR East As the largest Japan Railway Group company, JR East serves the eastern and Kanto parts of Tokyo which covers the Yamanote region. While Yamanote region is a well-developed cluster of city cores, the JR East has made great profit in this large market. Not only had the JR East Group learnt from the ...

Tokyo Decentralization II: Decentralized Town but Centralized Power?

Leung Janice

Along with discussions on whether the relocation of the Marunouchi center to Shinjuku is legitimate, some critics have commented on the whole philosophy behind the plan, questioning whether there is a surging sense of centralization in the thinking behind, although it is claiming to decentralize.  Shunichi Teranishi, associate professor of economics at Hitotsubashi University, criticized the ...

The Ubiquitous Legend – The Tokyu Group

Mak Yuen Ching

3/ The Tokyu Group The Tokyu group is a large private enterprise started off as Musashi Electric Railway in 1908, outlived railway nationalization as a railway division of the Den-en Toshi Corporation, it then merges with the Megoru-Kamata Dentetsu and some other railways, finally become the Tokyu Corporation in 1942 and continued development with the strategy ...

Railway Backfire? Tokyo Multi-core Planning

Mak Yuen Ching

2/ Transit-oriented Multicore Urban Planning In 1987, the Tokyo Metropolitan Government (TMG) ex-Governor Shunichi Suzuki announced the 2nd long term plan of Tokyo. One of the aims of the 2nd plan was to ease the overcrowding and congestion problem in Tokyo city center. By making use of the existing railway, Tokyo ex-Governor Shunichi Suzuki’s proposal was ...

Tokyo Decentralization III: Changing Perceptions of Center

Leung Janice

The strongly promoted development in the Yamanote loop subcenters as a means to decentralize the existing core is not as effectively done as said. According to urban planner David Mammen, the second plan does not take a positive stand toward decentralization; the efforts to disperse activity out of Tokyo have failed, and the center will ...

Saving the Railways – JNR to JRs

Mak Yuen Ching

1/ Railway Privatization In 1987, Japanese National Railways (JNR) stopped running and was divided into 7 new privately owned railway companies namely Japan Railways (JR). This act was due to the heavy debt suffered by JNR and the lack of competitiveness with other transportations. The disintegration of JNR has brought great changes to the railway business ...

“My Town Tokyo” or “World City”? TMG From 1981 to 1992

Yin Yue

The concept of “My Town Tokyo” is first brought up by Shunichi Suzuki, the Governor of Tokyo in 1981. The image he wants to create is a town where all the residents could live safely and vigorously by calling Tokyo hometown. This theme is emphasized earliest in the 1st Tokyo Metropolitan Long-Term Plan which published in ...

2nd and 3rd Long-Term Plan: Urban Issues, Decentralization and Transportation

Yin Yue

The 2nd long-term version is published in 1987, and the 3rd version is in 1991, by Tokyo Metropolitan Government. The 3rd long-term plan is based on the 2nd plan, and tried to tackle the remaining urban problems and plan for the future. The major urban problems before 1987 are traffic congestion, imbalances use of land, vulnerability ...

Decentralization Process of TMG and the 2nd Long-Term Plan

Yin Yue

To make Tokyo an attractive, vigorous, dignified city and an international center, Tokyo Metropolitan Government promulgated 2nd long-term plan in 1987 by upgrading the urban functions for internationalization and sophisticated information techniques. The most urgent task is to rectify the single-core structure in central areas. Office buildings, business centers, commercial and cultural activities are integrating ...

The Social Context of 1980s Behind the 2nd Long-Term Plan

Yin Yue

The population of Tokyo reached 11.83 million in 1985, and became the largest in the nation. It has continued to rise since 1920, except for the war period 1940-1945. After the wartime, the population in Tokyo has increased rapidly before the 1970s, and after that Tokyo experienced a slowing of population growth. More people ...

Historical Documents


A Fortunate Mistake – 2nd Long Term Plan for Tokyo

Mak Yuen Ching

10-Year Review and Envision – JRs in 1997

Mak Yuen Ching

Crazy Rise of Land Price in Tokyo May Affect the Implementation of Long-Term Plans

Yin Yue

The “Divine Wind” – First Year of JR East

Mak Yuen Ching

Voices of the Leftover – JNR Privatization Detriment

Mak Yuen Ching

The Third Plan (1991)

Leung Janice

Odaiba Then and Now

Mak Yuen Ching

Urban Developments in Governor Suzuki’s 15-year Tenure

Yin Yue

“My Town Tokyo Project” is Essential in Promoting Internationalization – A Survey in 1989

Yin Yue

Construction of the New City Hall in the Long-Term Plan – Serving for Citizens or “Honey Pot” for Statesmen?

Yin Yue

My Expensive Town Tokyo (1987)

Leung Janice

“A Change of Venue” – Heated Controversies (1986)

Leung Janice

Critique about the 2nd Long-Term Plan – Hometown or International City?

Yin Yue

“Symbol of a Capital City” (1991)

Leung Janice

Fanning out to the Future (1987)

Leung Janice

Teleport Town Rendering in the late 1980s

Lai Ka Chun

Construction Engineering and Management: Future Perspectives in 1991 Japan

Lai Ka Chun

The Bay Area: Another side of Tokyo

Lai Ka Chun

Revised Tokyo Teleport Town Project in 1988

Lai Ka Chun

5 The Early Success of the Revitalization Plan of Tokyo Bay: Yokohama Minato Mirai 21, 1981

Lau Siu Hin Marcus

4 Turning Point for Artificial Land in Tokyo Bay after the burst of the Economy Bubble

Lau Siu Hin Marcus

3 How attitudes towards transportation changed as a result of the burst of the Economy Bubble in 1991

Lau Siu Hin Marcus

2 Urban Planning of Tokyo Bay: Stylistic Changes in response to Economic Fluctuations from 1960 – 1990, Kisho Kurokawa

Lau Siu Hin Marcus

1 Urban Planning of Tokyo Bay: Stylistic Changes in response to Economic Fluctuations from 1960-1990, Kenzo Tange

Lau Siu Hin Marcus

The Transport White Paper 1989 - Chapter 5 Waterfront Advanced Use and Port Development

Lai Ka Chun

The Bubble Economy (1985-1995): Coastal Development Zoning Plans (1984, 1987)

Suen Zoe

The Bubble Economy (1985-1995): Artist’s Impression of Odaiba (1990)

Suen Zoe

The Bubble Economy (1985-1995): Suzuki Shunichi’s Propaganda for Tokyo Teleport Town

Suen Zoe

The Bubble Economy (1985-1995): World City Expo Tokyo ’96 Pamphlet (1994)

Suen Zoe

The Bubble Economy (1985-1995): Historical Aerial Photos of Odaiba’s Daiba District (1974-2000)

Suen Zoe

 

Bibliography


Role of the Government in Railway Development

Mak Yuen Ching

Urban Development and Globalisation in Japan’s State-centred Developmental Capitalism of Neo-Industrial Tokyo

Yin Yue

Cityscapes in Zones of Tokyo

Yin Yue

High Land Price Leads to A Decentralization of Population in Tokyo

Yin Yue

Bitter Life on Railway

Mak Yuen Ching

My Town Tokyo in 2nd and 3rd Long-term Plan and Related Plain Talks of TMG

Yin Yue

Urban Place and Identity Around Tokyo Station- Result of TOD

Yin Yue

The Unknown Dark-side of Tokyo

Mak Yuen Ching

Mayors of Tokyo

Mak Yuen Ching

Inevitable Density in Tokyo

Mak Yuen Ching

Business Core Cities – A Mere Concept? (2018)

Leung Janice

Borders of Deconcentration (2006)

Leung Janice

Decentralization of Planning Power (2006)

Leung Janice

A Scale-View of Centers (2017)

Leung Janice

Unplanned Polycentrism? (2001)

Leung Janice

Book: Urban Regeneration in Tokyo: Key Urban Redevelopment Projects

Lai Ka Chun

Japanese Urban Artificial Islands: An Overview of Projects and Schemes for Marine Cities during 1960s-1990s

Lai Ka Chun

A “futuristic waterfront city” drowns in red ink

Lai Ka Chun

From Megastructure to Meglapolis: Formation and Transformation of Mega-Projects in Tokyo Bay

Lau Siu Hin Marcus

Sustainable Leisure and Tourism Space Development in Post-Industrial Cities: the Case of Odaiba, Tokyo, Japan

Lau Siu Hin Marcus

Japanese Urban Environment (Originality in Urban Planning in Japan)

Lau Siu Hin Marcus

The Bay Area: Another Side of Tokyo, Kyoko Sato, Japan Times, June 10-16 1996

Lau Siu Hin Marcus

Project Japan: Tokyo Bay, Rem Koolhass

Lau Siu Hin Marcus

The Bubble Economy (1985-1995): Tokyo: City on the Edge (2002)

Suen Zoe

The Bubble Economy (1985-1995): Tokyo’s New Waterfront Transit System (1998)

Suen Zoe

The Bubble Economy (1985-1995): “My Town Tokyo” : A New Evolution toward the 21st Century (1987)

Suen Zoe

The Bubble Economy (1985-1995): “My Town Tokyo”: Heading into the 21st Century (1984)

Suen Zoe

The Bubble Economy (1985-1995): The Amano Proposal (1986)

Suen Zoe

A study on the History of the Revetment Forms in Tokyo Port

Lai Ka Chun

Administration and Planning of the Tokyo Teleport as an Information and Communication Network Infrastructure

Lai Ka Chun

 

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