Ulaanbaatar

“In Ulaanbaatar, nomadism confronts sedentary modernism and neo-liberal capitalism, as well as the continuing communist legacy. In the city, like the country’s economy in general, these ideals are comingled and interconnected, but the linkages between them remain unstable and largely insecure. As the national narrative evolves, so too will the urban landscape. At present, both remain in flux and project uncertainty as to the future of the state and nation.”

– Alexander C. Diener & Joshua Hagen, “City of felt and concrete: Negotiating cultural hybridity in Mongolia’s capital of Ulaanbaatar,” 2013

Narratives


Post Soviet Urbanism: Results of the Green Corridor Plan (1975)

Wong Gracia Yue Yee

In the 1980s, Ulaanbaatar was originally full of green areas, community-friendly courtyards and public parks has rendered the incapacity of the Green Plan to handle the population growth, resulting to the gradual disappearance of large extents of green spaces without notice. One of the examples is the Children’s Park, also ...

Green Corridor Plan (1975): Land Policy in Ulaanbaatar

Wong Gracia Yue Yee

Land in Mongolia is a valuable resource given that over 80% of its land (156 million hectares) are pastureland. Under Soviet rule, all Mongolian land ...

Green Corridor Plan (1975): Densification as the future for Ulaanbaatar?

Wong Gracia Yue Yee

The Green Corridor Plan (1975) illustrated the vision of Ulaanbaatar as a thriving city centre with adequate public spaces that balances the dense high-rise buildings. The incapability of foreseeing the population growth had created a huge obstacle in the organization of land resources which resulted in over-densification of city blocks. As the master plans were ...

The Green Corridor Plan (1975): Nomads No More?

Wong Gracia Yue Yee

Mongolians have had a long tradition of herding since the 16th century. Their pastoral life under harsh conditions had trained their resilience that are core qualities to the Mongolian nomadic culture. The nomadic culture was challenged in the early 1900s by the stepping in of Russian power onto Mongolian grounds who instilled urbanization ideals into the ...

Possibilities of Re-adoption of the Green Corridor Plan (1975) in the Future

Hai Chiao

The Green Corridor Plan in 1975 was designed for multi-reasons. From the aspect of urban planning, it was used as a tool to countercheck urban sprawl. Apart from the ...

Obstructions towards the Execution of the Green Corridor Plan (1975) from the 1960s to 1970s

Hai Chiao

Back to the 1950s, Mongolia had started industrialization with assistance from the USSR and China. The constructions of industrial infrastructure and dwelling apartments concentrated in Ulaanbaatar. The USSR helped with the construction of felt-rolling mills, water supply plants, leather-processing factories, etc. The most significant milestone of ...

Green Corridor Plan (1975): Urban Predecessors

Wong Gracia Yue Yee

The Green Corridor Plan in the 1975 laid between the period of the master plan II in 1961 and III in 1976. The rapid urbanization of Ulaanbaatar rose under the Soviet rule in early 1950s which was driven by the belief that “communist authorities looked approvingly on urbanization as a natural outcome of industrialization; cities ...

Important Institutions and Figure Participating in Formulating the Green Corridor Plan (1975)

Hai Chiao

Before the 1920s, there was no urban planning or urban formation in Mongolia. Ger settlements and non-sedentary lifestyle scattered over the large prairie of land. After becoming a unitary sovereign socialist state in 1924, Mongolia became a satellite state of the USSR. Under the Soviet influence, the first Ulaanbaatar city master plan was constructed by ...

Ambitions of the Mongolian Government: Realization of Industrialization and Urbanization of Mongolia through the Green Corridor Plan (1975)

Hai Chiao

The urban formation of Ulaanbaatar has a close relationship with the process of industrialization. The development plan was a capital’s city investment planning which most industrialization occurs in Ulaanbaatar. When the Green Corridor Plan was proposed in the 1970s, Ulaanbaatar was facing ...

Soviet Architectural Touches on Ulaanbaatar

Cheung Ngai Yan Sherry

Soviet has left traces of their rule over Ulaanbaatar, not only the master plan proposal, but also physically built their influence in the city. There was a statue of Lenin, the former head of Soviet Union, in front of the Ulaanbaatar Hotel. (Wren, 2013) The statue was a sign of connection with the communist and symbolizing ...

Ideologies on the Green Corridor Plan (1975): the City Beautiful Movement

Cheung Ngai Yan Sherry

  City Beautiful Movement is an urban planning ideology to increase the quality of life and maintain social order through introducing beautifications and monuments.  Among all, McMillan Plan is best to illustrate the ideology.   National Mall is a monumental Washington city core and it is where the wide boulevards extend outwards. On the axes, connecting to ...

Ambitions of the USSR government on Ulaanbaatar

Cheung Ngai Yan Sherry

  Soviet Helps Mongolia Shed Feudalism (Source: New York Times, December 14, 1974.)    Mongolia was a Soviet Satellite.  From the New York Times issued in 1974, the Mongolians was looking to Soviet Union for the military support and economic assistance. At the same time, in return, Mongolia represents a broad buffer against China along Soviet border and ...

Modernisation of Ulaanbaatar: Westernisation as a way of Urbanisation

Cheung Ngai Yan Sherry

In order to establish socialist material and technical base in the People’s Republic of Mongolia, it is required to raise the welfare of the workers in the ideology and culture of socialism in socialism. To achieve this, all adults should be literate, sanitation, health and culture be fully introduced into the life of the people. ...

1975 Ulaanbaatar Plan: The Green Corridor

Cheung Ngai Yan Sherry

Green corridor in Ulaanbaatar (Source from Ulaanbaatar National Archives) The Master plan of Ulaanbaatar in the 1975 was proposed by the “Giprogor”, the Institute in Russia. The plan aimed to limit the expansion of urban population. (JICA and MRTCUD, 2009) To form a socialist community, the Soviet focused on promoting industry, transportation, housing and public green ...

Ideologies on the Green Corridor Plan (1975): the Garden Cities

Hai Chiao

The Green Corridor originates from the Civic Square, runs from the far West to the far East and lies along the North-South axis of Ulaanbaatar. It was proposed in the 1970s and traces of it can still be seen nowadays. The concepts of the Green Corridor are serving as an urban green belt to provide ...

Historical Documents


Green Corridor Plan (1975)/ Archival Map

Wong Gracia Yue Yee

Green Corridor Plan (1975)/Historical images of green areas in Ulaanbaatar

Wong Gracia Yue Yee

Post Soviet Urbanism: Results of the Green Corridor Plan (1975)

Wong Gracia Yue Yee

Green Corridor Plan(1975)/ From Nomadic to Settled

Wong Gracia Yue Yee

The Green Corridor Plan (1975): Nomads No More?

Wong Gracia Yue Yee

Green Corridor Plan (1975)/Historical Plans of Ulaanbaatar (1911-1998)

Wong Gracia Yue Yee

Possibilities of Re-adoption of the Green Corridor Plan (1975) in the Future

Hai Chiao

Obstructions towards the Execution of the Green Corridor Plan (1975) from the 1960s to 1970s

Hai Chiao

Important Institutions and Figure Participating in Formulating the Green Corridor Plan (1975)

Hai Chiao

Ambitions of the Mongolian Government: Realization of Industrialization and Urbanization of Mongolia through the Green Corridor Plan (1975)

Hai Chiao

Soviet Architectural Touches on Ulaanbaatar

Cheung Ngai Yan Sherry

Ideologies on the Green Corridor Plan (1975): the City Beautiful Movement

Cheung Ngai Yan Sherry

Ambitions of the USSR government on Ulaanbaatar

Cheung Ngai Yan Sherry

Modernisation of Ulaanbaatar: Westernisation as a way of Urbanisation

Cheung Ngai Yan Sherry

1975 Ulaanbaatar Plan: The Green Corridor

Cheung Ngai Yan Sherry

Ideologies on the Green Corridor Plan (1975): the Garden Cities

Hai Chiao

Urban Planning Introduced by the Soviet Union

Tsui Yan Yan

Mapping of the River Tuul and referenced data on the current condition

Bettina Chow

Photos of Infrastructural Development of Ulaanbaatar

Tsui Yan Yan

Book: Soviet Mongolia: a study of the oldest political satellite

CHIU Tsun Yee Jeanie

Photos taken in the 1940s and the 1960s of 1st May Celebrations and October Revolution Anniversary in the Sukhbaatar Square

CHIU Tsun Yee Jeanie

Photos taken in 1950s depicting street scenes in the Sukhbaatar Square and the surrounding area

CHIU Tsun Yee Jeanie

Photos taken in the 1930s depicting monasteries in Ulaanbaatar

CHIU Tsun Yee Jeanie

Posters released in the 1940s-1950s illustrating the urban development of Ulaanbaatar

CHIU Tsun Yee Jeanie

 

Bibliography


Post Soviet Urbanism: Results of the Green Corridor Plan (1975)

Wong Gracia Yue Yee

Green Corridor Plan (1975)/Key aspects of urban planning and land reform of ger districts

Wong Gracia Yue Yee

Green Corridor Plan (1975): Land Policy in Ulaanbaatar

Wong Gracia Yue Yee

Green Corridor Plan (1975): Densification as the future for Ulaanbaatar?

Wong Gracia Yue Yee

Green Corridor Plan (1975)/Master Plans I-V of Ulaanbaatar (1954-2002)

Wong Gracia Yue Yee

Possibilities of Re-adoption of the Green Corridor Plan (1975) in the Future

Hai Chiao

Obstructions towards the Execution of the Green Corridor Plan (1975) from the 1960s to 1970s

Hai Chiao

Green Corridor Plan (1975): Urban Predecessors

Wong Gracia Yue Yee

Important Institutions and Figure Participating in Formulating the Green Corridor Plan (1975)

Hai Chiao

Ambitions of the Mongolian Government: Realization of Industrialization and Urbanization of Mongolia through the Green Corridor Plan (1975)

Hai Chiao

Soviet Architectural Touches on Ulaanbaatar

Cheung Ngai Yan Sherry

Ideologies on the Green Corridor Plan (1975): the City Beautiful Movement

Cheung Ngai Yan Sherry

Ambitions of the USSR government on Ulaanbaatar

Cheung Ngai Yan Sherry

Modernisation of Ulaanbaatar: Westernisation as a way of Urbanisation

Cheung Ngai Yan Sherry

1975 Ulaanbaatar Plan: The Green Corridor

Cheung Ngai Yan Sherry

Ideologies on the Green Corridor Plan (1975): the Garden Cities

Hai Chiao

“Gandan” Housing Block in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

Tsui Yan Yan

The New Cold War? Religious Nationalism Confronts the Secular State

Tsui Yan Yan

Green Belt Zoning for Ulaanbaatar City

Tsui Yan Yan

Urbanization and Relevance to the Rural regions

Bettina Chow

National statistics of various conditions in Ulaanbaatar

Bettina Chow

Ger district and transformation

Bettina Chow

Architectural type of Post-Soviet apartment complexes

Bettina Chow

Urban fabric and economic development – “Transition and Democracy in Mongolia”

CHIU Tsun Yee Jeanie

Urban fabric and political ideals/economic development – Modern Mongolia: From khans to commissars to capitalism.

CHIU Tsun Yee Jeanie

Urban fabric and political ideals – Cultural Landscapes of Post-Socialist Cities: representation of powers and needs

CHIU Tsun Yee Jeanie

Urban fabric and political ideals – “From the Demolition of Monasteries to the Installation of Neon Lights: The Politics of Urban Construction in the Mongolian People’s Republic”

CHIU Tsun Yee Jeanie

Urban fabric and political ideals – “City of felt and concrete: Negotiating cultural hybridity in Mongolia’s capital of Ulaanbaatar”

CHIU Tsun Yee Jeanie

 

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