“During the third and fourth master plan, Imperial cityscape of Tang dynasty was coerced, and with the private developers, the most of city was redeveloped to the imperial cityscape. Also, indigenous historical urban fabric was removed, if it was not coincided with the cityscape.”

– Lee Hwanseo, “Master Plan and Impact on Residents: Market-biased development,” 2019


Xi’an (1995-2005) [Narrative] Xi’an as a Role Model for Other Cities with Historic Landscapes

He Jingsu

The experience of Xi’an is not unique in China. The ‘modernisation’ drive and the emerging land market have affected most of the major historic cities including Beijing, the national capital. Provision of high-rise tower blocks, overhead urban roads and bridges, car parks and underground systems will have irreversible effects on the historic urban landscape. Many ...

Xi’an(1995-2005)/Tourist’s perspective: who damaged the Han Chang’an city?

Tai Ching Man

Han Chang’an city is a must-see tourist attraction from my Xi’an travel book. It is not only famous for all the stories from the Han Dynasty but also well-known for its special layout that followed the theories from Kaogongji(考工記). Inside the city, the Imperial Palace, Weiyang Palace sits in the Southern part, markets sit in ...

Xi’an(1995-2005)/Tourist’s perspective: the unique aesthetic of Chinese classical landscape

Tai Ching Man

It is not usual for historical protection preserving the relics but also the landscape elements. However, during my trip here in Xi’an, I noticed that the government put a lot of effort into the landscape green space system. It was since the third masterplan(1995-2010), the government realized to fully capture the history, only taking care ...

Xi’an (1995-2005) [Narrative] Local Government as a LISTENER – Incorporating People’s Voices in City Planning

He Jingsu

Xi’an has a governance that caters to its visitors just as much as the residents, which demonstrates the eminence of tourism in the Xi’an. As LISTENER to the residents and responder to the economic driving force – tourists, which extends to the property developers that runs the tourism sites. Despite city planning being a top-down ...

Xi’an (1995-2005) [Narrative] Local Government as a LONE RANGER – Unbounded by national policies

He Jingsu

As a Chinese city, Xi’an is bound to be an abider of national policies/strategies of the central government in regards to the general city reforms and economic development, yet it also found its way to differentiate itself and even stand out from other Chinese cities. It started since the demolition of many historic buildings during ...

Xi’an (1995-2005) [Narrative] Local Government as a PROMOTER – Branding the City

He Jingsu

One of the roles that was taken up (as assigned by the central government’s nationwide policies) by the local Xi’an government and planners is the promoter of its heritage and culture. In order to kick start “the 1995 plan”, Xi’an has gone through much lengths to guarantee that the objectives are met. These objectives shed ...

Xi’an (1995-2005) [Narrative] Central Government as a PROCLAIMER – Manifestation of the City’s Historical Significance

He Jingsu

Ever since the discovery of the terra cotta warriors in 1974, which subsequently gave rise to China’s initiation of a series of policy changes relating to the planning and development of cities in 1976 (Zhao, 1994), Xi’an began their journey of manifesting as a city of ultra historical importance. The figurative roads have already started paving ...

Historical Documents




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